A researcher or scholar is someone who has at least a graduate degree from an accredited institution of higher learning. He is part of an artificial society — ie a political or phoney society — of researchers or scholars called university or similar accredited institution of higher education, and his work is funded by his institution, and/or government or other institutional grants.
An independent, do-it-yourself (DIY) researcher or scholar, or a Ronin Institute research scholar is someone who still has at least a graduate degree from an accredited institution of higher learning, but who is not employed at a university or similar institution of higher education. He is part of a more natural society of independent scholars called peers, but has nonetheless established him- or herself only through the publication of scholarly work that has been reviewed and accepted by non-peers: usually unrelated society or academic journals, or through similar non-peer reviewed publication in books issued by non-peer trade or university presses. The self-described independent scholar is often called "unemployed PhD", "crackpot", "retired professor", "wannabe professor", or "failed academic" from professional or academic non-peers, but sometimes he/she actually does independent or part-time scholarship, usually in esoteric, exotic, non-orthodox, or non-academic fields. Sometimes he/she is also a member, and/or participates in professional academic disciplinary societies. Sometimes he/she even teaches part-time at accredited institutions of higher learning, or through new educational models or settings.
A lay scholar is a person who acts as a scholar but without the training or degree that normally goes with it. He usually acquires his real knowledge, if he truly has any, through life experience or the "School or University of Hard Knocks".
A citizen scientist is a fairly qualified lay scientist, or simply an amateur scientist who often partners with, or helps gather data for professional scientists.
Small science — in contrast to Big Science — refers to science performed in a smaller scale, such as by individuals, small teams, or within community projects. It is often the science performed, and/or the data collected by citizen scientists, or by professional scientists in more informal or natural research settings.
Alternative science may refer to fringe science, pseudoscience, or philosophy. Fringe science may be valid science, but which is not considered mainstream. Pseudoscience is a claim, belief, or practice which is incorrectly presented as "scientific", but which does not adhere to a valid scientific method, cannot be reliably tested, or that otherwise lacks scientific status.
The essential problem with most kinds of research or scholarship is this: either they favour the interests of big government, big business, and/or big religion alone, or they reduce most other people, families, small groups or communities outside of traditional academia, or outside of independent scholarship societies, into research/scholarship funders without any societal benefit whatsoever, or they reduce most other people, families, small groups or communities into data collectors — which provides even additional savings for science, to be pocketed or used by real, ie professional scientists only. None of this research or scholarship, in other words, truly benefits individuals, families, or small groups or communities either through the wisdom discovered, or through the creation of new employment opportunities — the latter often benefits scientists or lab technicians the most, not people with even undergraduate degrees. Most research or scholarship thus only benefits the political, business, or religious oligarchies, ie artifical societies, not the grassroots, natural or organic societies. Even natural independent scholarship societies, since they invariably depend on public or university libraries or data collections, and donations from politically or financially powerful patrons, groups, or institutions, often become corrupt, in time, just like public or private institutions.
An alternative, micronational, societal, societalistic, Saint René Descartes University, and/or Cesidian researcher or scholar is everything but the traditional or independent researcher or scholar.
Alternative researcher or scholar does not mean "unemployed PhD", because he may not even possess an undergraduate degree, but he is either self-employed, or employed by a certified or accredited micronation. There are no PhDs from micronations, as all PhDs are affiliated with polities and their institutions of higher education, not with micronational, small, or natural societies.
Micronational researcher or scholar does not mean "crackpot", because crackpots cannot show they are part of some mature, certified, or accredited micronation.
Societal o societalistic researcher or scholar does not mean "retired professor", because societalism started within real and active societal micronations, not with political libertarians with lots of free time and money. It is artificial societies or polities that have such a thing as retirement ages, and/or retirement wealth.
Saint René Descartes University researchers or scholars are not "wannabe professors" or "failed academics", because they have honorary, academic, religious, and even unique scholar's degrees.
Cesidian researchers or scholars are involved in the cesidian science (cesidian societal-political science), salubriology (natural health science), and/or liberating or societal, not enslaving political technology.